Abstrak Fish Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality of the Down Stream of Musi River, South Sumatera, Indonesia
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Musi River is a large river with its drainage area covers three provinces, South Sumatera, Lampung, and Bengkulu, and with multi uses of its resources. At the down stream of Musi River, most activities are dominated by industries with their waste products go into the river which could harm its aquatic organism. Several assessment studies have been conducted in the Musi River, however they focused on physical and chemical aspects of the water. Aquatic organisms can reveal the real world effects of exceedences and consequent harm more precisely than can be predicted or measured on a chemical and or toxicity basis alone. Compared to other aquatic biota, fish are of particular interest for biological indicators. Species diversity and dominance are component of community structure that can be used to study several changes caused by the aquatic environment degradation The community structure of fish is frequently monitored to describe river conditions. Study in order to determine the fish community structure in relation to water quality of down stream of Musi River was conducted on April and June 2007. Sampling on physical and chemical parameters of the water and sediment, and fish sample were carried in each sampling site. Water sample was collected at a depth of 1.0 m from the water surface by using kemmerer water sampler. Some water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were directly analyzed in the field, while other water quality parameters such as total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, and phosphate were analyzed in laboratory. Fish sample was collected from the experiment fishing and from the fishermen. Two type of fishing gears, electrofishing, and gill net with 8 different mesh sizes were used. Fish sample from fishing experiment and from the fishermen were collected, sorted based on the species, labelled, measured for their weight and individual number, and then preserved with 10% off formaldehyde water quality parameters were analyzed using principle component analysis while fish relative abundances were analyzed with cluster. Fish community structure through simple diversity and dominance index, and proportionate abundance of species (relative abundance) were correlated with the quality of aquatic environment. The down stream of Musi River station starting from Gandus to PT. SAP station was in degradation presses state indicated by diversity index in the range of 1 to 2 and high proportion of small fish than that the large fish.
KEYWORDS: fish community structure, diversity, dominance, water quality, Musi River